Tuesday, June 27, 2006

Who were Some Of The Best Scholars at Trent, And What Did They Think Of The Apocrypha?

The Council of Trent made the official pronouncement on the Canon of Sacred Scripture, and in that pronouncement determined, once and for all, that the apocryphal books were indeed Sacred Scripture (for Roman Catholics). What criteria did the Council of Trent use to determine which books of the Bible were canonical? The basic answer I’ve been given is, Trent did not determine the canon, they simply reaffirmed the canon; and: The Holy Spirit determined the outcome of Trent by His presence among this infallible council. The basic idea is that a group of people got together at Trent and harmoniously "reaffirmed" affirmed an earlier decision... led by the Holy Spirit.

This is not what happened.  There was a group of scholars at the Council of Trent that were considered knowledgeable on the canon. One particular was Cardinal Seripando. The Roman Catholic historian (and expert on Trent) Hubert Jedin explained “…[H]e was aligned with the leaders of a minority that was outstanding for its theological scholarship” at the Council of Trent. These Roman Catholic scholars argued for the exclusion of the apocrypha (Deuterocanonicals)... because... there were competing traditions within the Western church on the contents of the Old Testament. Trent picked one tradition over the other.

Jedin is worth quoting at length:
(Seripando was) Impressed by the doubts of St. Jerome, Rufinus, and St. John Damascene about the deuterocanonical books of the Old Testament, Seripando favored a distinction in the degrees of authority of the books of the Florentine canon. The highest authority among all the books of the Old Testament must be accorded those which Christ Himself and the apostles quoted in the New Testament, especially the Psalms. But the rule of citation in the New Testament does not indicate the difference of degree in the strict sense of the word, because certain Old Testament books not quoted in the New Testament are equal in authority to those quoted. St. Jerome gives an actual difference in degree of authority when he gives a higher place to those books which are adequate to prove a dogma than to those which are read merely for edification. The former, the protocanonical books, are "libri canonici et authentici"; Tobias, Judith, the Book of Wisdom, the books of Esdras, Ecclesiasticus, the books of the Maccabees, and Baruch are only "canonici et ecclesiastici" and make up the canon morum in contrast to the canon fidei. These, Seripando says in the words of St. Jerome, are suited for the edification of the people, but they are not authentic, that is, not sufficient to prove a dogma. Seripando emphasized that in spite of the Florentine canon the question of a twofold canon was still open and was treated as such by learned men in the Church. Without doubt he was thinking of Cardinal Cajetan, who in his commentary on the Epistle to the Hebrews accepted St. Jerome's view which had had supporters throughout the Middle Ages.” Hubert Jedin, Papal Legate At The Council Of Trent (St Louis: B. Herder Book Co., 1947), 270-271
“For the last time [Seripando] expressed his doubts [to the Council of Trent] about accepting the deuterocanonical books into the canon of faith. Together with the apostolic traditions the so-called apostolic canons were being accepted, and the eighty-fifth canon listed the Book of Sirach (Ecclesiasticus) as non-canonical. Now, he said, it would be contradictory to accept, on the one hand, the apostolic traditions as the foundation of faith and, on the other, to directly reject one of them.” Hubert Jedin, Papal Legate At The Council Of Trent (St Louis: B. Herder Book Co., 1947), 278.
Jedin also documents a group of excellent scholars that stood against “tradition” as being on the same level of authority as scripture:
“In his opposition to accepting the Florentine canon and the equalization of traditions with Holy Scripture, Seripando did not stand alone. In the particular congregation of March 23, the learned Dominican Bishop Bertano of Fano had already expressed the view that Holy Scripture possessed greater authority than the traditions because the Scriptures were unchangeable; that only offenders against the biblical canon should come under the anathema, not those who deny the principle of tradition; that it would be unfortunate if the Council limited itself to the apostolic canons, because the Protestants would say that the abrogation of some of these traditions was arbitrary and represented an abuse… Another determined opponent of putting traditions on a par with Holy Scripture, as well as the anathema, was the Dominican Nacchianti. The Servite general defended the view that all the evangelical truths were contained in the Bible, and he subscribed to the canon of St. Jerome, as did also Madruzzo and Fonseca on April 1. While Seripando abandoned his view as a lost cause, Madruzzo, the Carmelite general, and the Bishop of Agde stood for the limited canon, and the bishops of Castellamare and Caorle urged the related motion to place the books of Judith, Baruch, and Machabees in the "canon ecclesiae." From all this it is evident that Seripando was by no means alone in his views. In his battle for the canon of St. Jerome and against the anathema and the parity of traditions with Holy Scripture, he was aligned with the leaders of a minority that was outstanding for its theological scholarship.” Hubert Jedin, Papal Legate At The Council Of Trent (St Louis: B. Herder Book Co., 1947), 281-282.


Oddball Pastor said...

I think it is significant that the reasons for the Apocrypha being accepted had less to do withthe evidence than modern Catholics might liek to think. I mean, we all know (or should know) that Trent was a fundamentally reactionary Council. It was created in response and inreaction to the Reformation. It should be expected that this concern woul show itself in the form of biased approaches to particular topics, like authority and the canon.

Churchmouse said...

Hi Jim,

What always speaks volumes to me is that Trent had to define a canon to begin with. We're talking some 1,500 years into Christendom and others within the Church, such as Cardinal Seripando and his group, were still claiming that these books didn't belong. Parallel this to the Catholics who claim that a decision was made back in the 4th century by the African synods. It sure seems that Seripando and the boys and others, such as Cardinals Cajetan and Ximenes, knew this decision wasn't binding and didn't feel they needed to follow this "judgment of the churches."